نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه فلسفه هنر، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

    فلسفه و جامعهشناسی در مسائل مشترک و با روشهای متفاوت به یکدیگر نزدیک میشوند. در این نزدیکسازی به شرط بهرهمندی از نوعی تاریخگرایی پساهگلی، جامعهشناسی قدری انتزاع و فلسفه مایههای انضمامی به دست میآورند که میتوان آن را در روششناسی جدید سیستمی و در مواجههی روشنگری از منظر جامعهشناختی و فلسفی ملاحظه کرد. در این مواجهه امر عقلانی و اجتماعی، سو‍ژه و ابژه،  شأن هستیشناختی برابری پیدا میکنند. این نوشتار با تحلیل دادههای به دست آمده از مطالعهی آرای برخی از اندیشمندان برجستهی فلسفه و جامعهشناسی به شرح موانع معرفتی و معرفی روشنگری از منظری جامعهشناختی و نیز به تعدیل جامعهشناسیگرایی کوش میپردازد که هستومندهای عقلانی را اجتماعی و کاملاً وابسته معرفی میکند. بدین منظور دیدگاه معرفت سیستمی که بر مبنای عقلانیت محدود انسانی، غلبهی نوعی عقلانیت سیستمی و معرفت درونی واقعیتهای اجتماعی را نوید میدهد میتواند مفید باشد. این دیدگاه پرسپکتیو عمودی دیدگاههای اومانیستی و عقلانیت خودبنیاد روشنگری را کنار میگذارد و با تقسیم یکسان عاملیت میان انسان و جامعه امر عقلانی و اجتماعی را همبسته معرفی میکند.

عنوان مقاله [English]

Compare the Sociological and Systems Approach on Relationship the Rational and the Social: With an Emphasis on Kusch’s and Lumann’s Theory

چکیده [English]

It was important the relationship between the rational and the social for philosophers and sociologists from the distant past. This question refers to the relationship between reality and knowledge. The philosophical enlightenment has insisted on the importance of the human rationality in knowledge and social development. That is human rationality determines the affairs of society and knowledge. But after Marx’s criticism of capitalism, this thought became strong that society determines human consciousness. After that society placed inside reality and knowledge as the third pole. The third pole influenced on two other poles. With considering meaning as a human projection after Nietzsche, philosophy is closer to sociology. Even in the some cases it seems, a form of sociologism. The sociologism is a main component in contemporary thought. For this reason the many of critics don’t accept postmodern philosophy. For instance, Foucault says human entity is created by the structural changes of societies in history. In fact this matter became common after Niettzsche. The power that philosophy was given to human gradually reduced. This orientation led to decline of the power of Cartesian subject. The idea gained strength that human don’t determines meaning and the evolution of affairs alone, because of communication and social relations were ahead of him. That is, the social is determinative and it guides the rational. This was in itself a critique of modernistic individualism. This is the sociological enlightenment will seek the causes of events in the communities. While philosophical enlightenment gives all authority to human rationality, sociological enlightenment gives a part of authority to society. In this conception of human and society are not independent. Human cannot stand outside society. Then human should study society from within. Of course this is due to the bounded rationality of human. Human cannot forecast the future and changes. Then the human rationality is cause and effect in the social rationality. In recent years it is said from a form systemic rationality that both covers. This paper studies the aforementioned approach in the sociology of knowledge by studying the effective contemporary thoughts. It is important to express philosophical aspects of both approaches. Of course sociological approach introduces a type of the communication of dependence between them, but systems approach modifies the dependence and instead of argues from their correlation. This is mainly because of the importance of communicative nature of science and knowledge. In the approach human is a conscious system that is a part of communication. This paper attempts to explain the relationship between the rational and the social from two theoretical perspectives. There are similarities and differences their between. Of course, systems approach is saw more philosophical. In fact holism gives a philosophical aspect to it. In the survey have importance the relationship between reality, human and knowledge. These are common subjects in the philosophy, sociology and the sociology of philosophical knowledge, but their methodology is different. In fact, each of different branches of human sciences has special method. It seems systems approach is closer to philosophical method.

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